References for Sharing a Sleep Surface With a Baby

1. Scragg, R. K. R., Stewart, A. W., Mitchell, E. A., Thompson, J. M. D., Taylor, B. J., Williams, S. M., ... & Hassall, I. B. (1996). Infant room-sharing and prone sleep position in sudden infant death syndrome. The Lancet, 347(8993), 7-12.

2. Mitchell, E.A., & Thompson, J.M.D. (1995) Co-sleeping increases the risk of SIDS, but sleeping in the parents’ bedroom lowers it. In: T.O. Rognum (Ed.), Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: New trends in the nineties (266-269). Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.

3. Blair, P. S., Platt, M. W., Smith, I. J., & Fleming, P. J. (2006). Sudden infant death syndrome and sleeping position in pre-term and low birth weight infants: an opportunity for targeted intervention. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91(2), 101-106.

4. Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E. A., Tappin, D. M., Vennemann, M. M., Smuk, M., & Carpenter, J. R. (2013). Bed sharing when parents do not smoke: is there a risk of SIDS? An individual level analysis of five major case–control studies. BMJ Open, 3(5), e002299.

5. Vennemann, M. M., Hense, H. W., Bajanowski, T., Blair, P. S., Complojer, C., Moon, R. Y., & Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, U. (2012). Bed sharing and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome: can we resolve the debate? The Journal of Pediatrics, 160(1), 44-48.

6. Blair, P. S. (2006). Sudden infant death syndrome epidemiology and bed sharing. Paediatrics and Child Health, 11(Supplement SA), 29-31.

7. Fleming, P.J., Blair, P.S., Bacon, C., & Berry, P.J. (Eds.) (2000) Sudden unexpected deaths in infancy: The CESDI SUDI studies 1993-1996. London: The Stationery Office.

8. Fleming, P., Blair, P., & McKenna, J. (2006). New knowledge, new insights, and new recommendations. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91(10), 799-801.

9. Byard, R. W., Beal, S., Blackbourne, B., Nadeau, J. M., & Krous, H. F. (2001). Specific dangers associated with infants sleeping on sofas. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 37(5), 476-478.

10. Rechtman, L. R., Colvin, J. D., Blair, P. S., & Moon, R. Y. (2014). Sofas and infant mortality. Pediatrics, 134(5), e1293-e1300.

11. Blair, P. S., Sidebotham, P., Pease, A., & Fleming, P. J. (2014). Bed-Sharing in the absence of hazardous circumstances: Is there a risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome? An analysis from two case-control studies conducted in the UK. PloS One, 9(9), e107799.

12. Young, J., Queensland Health & SIDS and Kids (2015). Safe Infant Sleeping e-learning education package. Retrieved from

13. Vennemann, M. M., Bajanowski, T., Brinkmann, B., Jorch, G., Sauerland, C., & Mitchell, E. A. (2009). Sleep environment risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome: the German Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Study. Pediatrics, 123(4), 1162-1170.

14. Tappin, D., Ecob, R., & Brooke, H. (2005). Bedsharing, roomsharing, and sudden infant death syndrome in Scotland: a case-control study. The Journal of Pediatrics, 147(1), 32-37.

15. McGarvey, C., McDonnell, M., Chong, A., O’Regan, M., & Matthews, T. (2003). Factors relating to the infant’s last sleep environment in sudden infant death syndrome in the Republic of Ireland. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88(12), 1058-1064.

16. Collins, K. A. (2001). Death by overlaying and wedging: a 15-year retrospective study. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 22(2), 155-159.

17. Kemp, J. S., Unger, B., Wilkins, D., Psara, R. M., Ledbetter, T. L., Graham, M. A., ... & Thach, B. T. (2000). Unsafe sleep practices and an analysis of bedsharing among infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly: results of a four-year, population-based, death-scene investigation study of sudden infant death syndrome and related deaths. Pediatrics, 106(3), e41-e41.

18. Nakamura, S., Wind, M., & Danello, M. A. (1999). Review of hazards associated with children placed in adult beds. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 153(10), 1019-1023.

19. Baddock, S. A., Galland, B. C., Bolton, D. P., Williams, S. M., & Taylor, B. J. (2006). Differences in infant and parent behaviors during routine bed sharing compared with cot sleeping in the home setting. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1599-1607.

20. Blair, P. S., Mitchell, E., Fleming, P. J., Smith, I. J., Platt, M. W., Young, J., ... & the CESDI SUDI Research Group. (1999). Babies sleeping with parents: case-control study of factors influencing the risk of the sudden infant death syndrome. BMJ, 319(7223), 1457-1462.

21. Carpenter, R. G., Irgens, L. M., Blair, P. S., England, P. D., Fleming, P., Huber, J., ... & Schreuder, P. (2004). Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: case control study. The Lancet, 363(9404), 185-191.

22. James, C., Klenka, H., & Manning, D. (2003). Sudden infant death syndrome: bed sharing with mothers who smoke. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88(2), 112-113.

23. McGarvey, C., McDonnell, M., Hamilton, K., & O’Regan, M. (2006). Bed sharing and sudden infant death syndrome: Irish case-control study. Paediatrics and Child Health, 11(Supplement SA), 19-21.

24. Scragg, R., Mitchell, E. A., Taylor, B. J., Stewart, A. W., Ford, R. P., Thompson, J. M., ... & Becroft, D. M. (1993). Bed sharing, smoking, and alcohol in the sudden infant death syndrome. New Zealand Cot Death Study Group. BMJ, 307(6915), 1312-1318.

25. Colson, E. R., Willinger, M., Rybin, D., Heeren, T., Smith, L. A., Lister, G., & Corwin, M. J. (2013). Trends and factors associated with infant bed sharing, 1993-2010: the National Infant Sleep Position Study. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(11), 1032-1037.

26. Huang, Y., Hauck, F. R., Signore, C., Yu, A., Raju, T. N., Huang, T. T. K., & Fein, S. B. (2013). Influence of bedsharing activity on breastfeeding duration among US mothers. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(11), 1038-1044.

27. Galbally, M., Lewis, A. J., McEgan, K., Scalzo, K., & Islam, F. M. (2013). Breastfeeding and infant sleep patterns: an Australian population study. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 49(2), E147-E152.

28. Horsley, T., Clifford, T., Barrowman, N., Bennett, S., Yazdi, F., Sampson, M., ... & Cote, A. (2007). Benefits and harms associated with the practice of bed sharing: a systematic review. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine,161(3), 237-245.

29. McKenna, J. J., Mosko, S. S., & Richard, C. A. (1997). Bedsharing promotes breastfeeding. Pediatrics, 100(2), 214-219.

30. McKenna, J. J., Mosko, S., & Richard, C. (1999). Breast feeding and mother-infant cosleeping in relation to SIDS prevention. In Wenda R. Trevathan, James J. McKenna & E. O. Smith (Eds.), Evolutionary Medicine (53-74). New York: Oxford University Press.

31. Young, J. (1999). Night-time behaviour and interactions between mothers and their infants of low risk for SIDS: a longitudinal study of room-sharing and bed sharing (Unpublished PhD thesis). Institute of Child Health, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

32. Ball, H. L., Hooker, E., & Kelly, P. J. (1999). Where will the baby sleep? Attitudes and practices of new and experienced parents regarding cosleeping with their newborn infants. American Anthropologist, 101(1), 143-151.

33. Riordan, J. & Wambach, K. (2010). Breastfeeding and human lactation (4th ed., p.89). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

34. Pemberton, D. (2005). Breastfeeding, co-sleeping and the prevention of SIDS. British Journal of Midwifery, 13(1), 12-18.

35. Quillin, S. I., & Glenn, L. L. (2004). Interaction Between Feeding Method and Co‐Sleeping on Maternal‐Newborn Sleep. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 33(5), 580-588.

36. Gettler, L. T., & McKenna, J. J. (2011). Evolutionary perspectives on mother–infant sleep proximity and breastfeeding in a laboratory setting. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144(3), 454-462.

37. Mosko, S., Richard, C., & McKenna, J. (1997). Infant arousals during mother-infant bed sharing: implications for infant sleep and sudden infant death syndrome research. Pediatrics, 100(5), 841-849.

38. Mao, A., Burnham, M. M., Goodlin-Jones, B. L., Gaylor, E. E., & Anders, T. F. (2004). A comparison of the sleep–wake patterns of cosleeping and solitary-sleeping infants. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 35(2), 95-105.

39. McKenna, J. J., & McDade, T. (2005). Why babies should never sleep alone: a review of the co-sleeping controversy in relation to SIDS, bedsharing and breast feeding. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 6(2), 134-152.

40. Heron, P. (1994). Non-reactive co-sleeping and child behavior: Getting a good night’s sleep all night every night. (Unpublished Master’s thesis). University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

41. Elias, M.F., Nicolson, N.A., Bora, C. & Johnston, J. (1986). Sleep/wake patterns of breast-fed infants in the first 2 years of life. Pediatrics, 77(3): 322-329.

42. McKenna, J., Loughlin, J., Carrol, J., Marcus, C. (2000). Cultural influences on infant and childhood sleep biology and the science that studies it: Toward a more inclusive paradigm. In C. Marcus (Ed), Sleep and breathing in children: A developmental approach (pp.199-230). New York : Marcel Dekker.

43. Baddock, S. A., Galland, B. C., Bolton, D. P., Williams, S. M., & Taylor, B. J. (2012). Hypoxic and hypercapnic events in young infants during bed-sharing.Pediatrics, 130(2), 237-244.

44. McKenna, J. J., & Volpe, L. E. (2007). Sleeping with baby: an internet‐based sampling of parental experiences, choices, perceptions, and interpretations in a Western industrialized context. Infant and Child Development, 16(4), 359-385.

45. McKenna, J. J. (1990). Evolution and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Human Nature, 1( 2): 145-177.

46. Ball, H. L. (2003). Breastfeeding, bed‐sharing, and infant sleep. Birth, 30(3), 181-188.

47. Beijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, J. M., & de Weerth, C. (2013). Cortisol regulation in 12-month-old human infants: Associations with the infants’ early history of breastfeeding and co-sleeping. Stress, 16(3), 267-277.

48. Morelli, G.A., Roghoff, B., Oppenheim, D. & Goldsmith, D. (1992). Cultural Variation in Infants’ Sleeping Arrangements: Questions of Independence. Developmental Psychology, 28(4): 604–613.

49. Forbes, J. F., Weiss, D. S., & Folen, R. A. (1992). The cosleeping habits of military children. Military Medicine, 57(4): 196-200.

50. Mosenkis, J. (1998). The effects of childhood co-sleeping on later life development. (Unpublished Master’s thesis). The University of Chicago, Chicago, USA.

51. Okami, P., Weisner, T., & Olmstead, R. (2002). Outcome correlates of parent-child bedsharing: an eighteen-year longitudinal study. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 23(4), 244-253.

52. Crawford, C. J. (1994). Parenting practices in the Basque country: implications of infant and childhood sleeping location for personality development. Ethos,22(1), 42-82.

53. Ball, H. (2009). Airway covering during bed-sharing. Child: Care, Health & Development, 35(5):728-737.

54. Young, J., Battistutta, D., O’Rourke, P., & Thompson, J. M. D. (2008). Infant Care Practices Related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Queensland 2002.Brisbane: Queensland Health.

55. Young, J., Pollard, K.S., Blair, P.S., Fleming, P.J. & Sawczenko, A. (1998). Night-time behaviour and interactions between mothers and infants of low SIDS risk: A longitudinal study of room- sharing and bed-sharing. Pediatric Pulmonology, 26(6): 447.

56. Ball, H. L., Ward-Platt, M. P., Heslop, E., Leech, S. J., & Brown, K. A. (2006). Randomised trial of infant sleep location on the postnatal ward. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91(12), 1005-1010.

57. Richard, C., Mosko, S., McKenna, J., & Drummond, S. (1996). Sleeping position, orientation, and proximity in bedsharing infants and mothers. Sleep,19(9), 685-690.

58. McBean, A. L., & Montgomery‐Downs, H. E. (2015). What are postpartum women doing while the rest of the world is asleep? Journal of Sleep Research, 24(3), 270–278.

59. Ball, H.L., Ward- Platt, M.P., Howel, D. & Russell, C. (2011). Randomised trial of sidecar crib use on breastfeeding duration (NECOT). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96: 630-634. doi:10.1136/adc.2010.205344

60. Ball, H.L.(2008). Evolutionary paediatrics: A case study in applying Darwinian medicine. In: Elton, S. & O’Higgins, P. (eds.) Medicine and evolution: Current applications, future prospects (pp.127–152). New York : Taylor & Francis.

61. Tully, K. P., & Ball, H. L. (2012). Postnatal Unit Bassinet Types When Rooming-In after Cesarean Birth Implications for Breastfeeding and Infant Safety. Journal of Human Lactation, 28(4), 495-505.

62. Infant Sleep Information Source (ISIS). (2014). Side-Car Cribs, Bedside Cots, and Co-Sleepers. Retrieved from

63. Government of Canada (2015, April 28). ALERT: Bednest Ltd. recalls bedside cribs. Retrieved from

64. Lee, H. (2013, June 4). Why Finnish babies sleep in cardboard boxes. BBC News. Retrieved from

65. Tipene-Leach, D., Baddock, S., Williams, S., Jones, R., Tangiora, A., Abel, S., & Taylor, B. (2014). Methodology and recruitment for a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the safety of wahakura for infant bedsharing. BMC Pediatrics,14(1), 240.

66. Abel, S., Stockdale-Frost, A., Rolls, R., & Tipene-Leach, D. (2015). The wahakura: A qualitative study of the flax bassinet as a sleep location for New Zealand Māori infants. New Zealand Medical Journal, 128(1413).

67. Cowan, S., Bennett, S., Clarke, J., & Pease, A. (2013). An evaluation of portable sleeping spaces for babies following the Christchurch earthquake of February 2011. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 49(5), 364-368. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12196

68. Young, J., Craigie, L., Kearney, L., Watson, K., & Cowan, S. (2014, July). Safe Sleep Advice to Safe Sleep Action: Pilot of the Pēpi-pod Program in Indigenous communities. Paper presented at the 25th International Nursing Research Congress: Engaging colleagues, improving global health outcomes, Hong Kong.

69. NSW Health. (2005). Babies – Safe Sleeping in NSW Health Maternity Facilities. Policy Directive PD2005_594. Sydney: Department of Health, NSW.

70. Queensland Health. (2008). Safe infant care to reduce the risk of Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Infancy: Policy statement and guidelines. Brisbane: Queensland Health, Queensland.